Spain timeline

  • Abd ar-Rahman IV becomes Caliph of Cordoba

    Abd ar-Rahman IV Mortada (عبدالرحمن) was the Caliph of Cordoba in the Umayyad dynasty of the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia), succeeding Suleiman II,... Read more

  • The Caliphate of Cordoba ends

    The death of al-Hakam II in 976 marked the beginning of the end of the Caliphate of Córdoba. Before his death, al-Hakam named his 14 year old son... Read more

  • Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, end of the Almohad rule in Spain

    The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of... Read more

  • Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra is Born

    Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 29 September 1547 – 23 April 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. His magnum opus Don Quixote, often... Read more

  • Battle of Lepanto (1571)

    The Battle of Lepanto (Greek: Ναύπακτος, Naupaktos, pron. Náfpaktos; colloquial Greek: Έπαχτος, Épahtos; Turkish: İnebahtı) took place on 7 October... Read more

  • 'Don Quixote' is Published

    The heroism of Don Quixote is by no means constant: he is perfectly capable of flight, abandoning poor Sancho to be beaten up by an entire village.... Read more

  • Battle of Les Avins

    The Battle of Les Avins or Battle of Avein was fought on May 20, 1635 during the Thirty Years' War between a French and a Spanish army. The... Read more

  • The Siege of Turin

    The 1640 siege of Turin was a major action in two distinct wars: the Franco-Spanish War (1635) and the Piedmontese Civil War. Thomas of Savoy and... Read more

  • Battle of Honnecourt

    In spring 1642, cardinal Richelieu concentrated his forces to besiege the city of Perpignan in the province of Roussillon, leaving the rest of his... Read more

  • The Peace of Westphalia is Achieved through the Treaties of Osnabrück and Münster

    The term Peace of Westphalia refers to the two peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, signed on May 15 and October 24, 1648, respectively, and... Read more

  • Battle of Lens

    The Battle of Lens (20 August 1648) was a French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé against the Spanish army under Archduke Leopold... Read more

  • Battle of Arras

    The Battle of Arras, fought on August 25, 1654, was a victory of a French army under Turenne against a Spanish army commanded by Don Fernidand de... Read more

  • Battle of Valenciennes

    With a little further sacrifice of pride on the part of Spain peace might, perhaps, have been made after the deaths of Louis XIII and Richelieu had... Read more

  • Treaty of the Pyrenees

    The Treaty of the Pyrenees is the last major diplomatic achievement by Cardinal Mazarin. Combined with the Peace of Westphalia, it allowed Louis... Read more

  • Pueblo Indians Capture Santa Fe from the Spanish

    The Spaniards were to report later that they fought 2,500 Pueblo warriors. Lacking firepower, the warriors blocked the stream coming into Casa... Read more

  • Signing of the Treaty of Ryswick

    The Treaty of Ryswick or Ryswyck was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (now known as Rijswijk) in the Dutch Republic. The treaty... Read more

  • Great Siege of Gibraltar

    Eventually on 13 September 1782 the Bourbon allies launched their great attack; the number involved nearly 70,000 fighting men both French and... Read more

  • Battle of St. Louis

    The British arrived on May 26 and savagely handled a group of farmers and slaves on the outskirts of town before rushing into the deadly volleys... Read more

  • Battle of Mobile

    The British garrison nearest to Mobile was in West Florida's capital, Pensacola. The commander, General John Campbell, had under his command about... Read more

  • Battle of Pensacola

    On April 28, siege operations finally got underway. By May 1 they had emplaced a battery of cannons overlooking the Queen's Redoubt, and begun... Read more

  • Invasion of Minorca

    Work soon began on gun emplacements to besiege St. Philip's Castle, the most important being at La Mola, on the opposite side of the harbor mouth,... Read more

  • Battle of Roatán

    The Battle of Roatán was an American Revolutionary War battle fought on March 16, 1782, between British and Spanish forces for control of Roatán,... Read more

  • Battle of Cape Spartel

    There was a tempest on 10 October, and some of the Franco-Spanish ships, which were anchored off Algeciras, were damaged, although none were sunk.... Read more

  • French Revolutionary Wars

    The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and... Read more

  • First Coalition

    The First Coalition (1793–1797) was the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. It took shape... Read more