Second Persian Period

The second conquest of Egypt at the end of the reign of Nectanebo II is thought to have brought the plundering of temples and strong suppression of Egyptians, though the sources are not impartial.

There are Egyptians attested, who supported the Persians, such as Semtutefnakht from Herakleopolis, and the eldest son of Nectanebo II (whose name is not known). Khababash was an Egyptian rebel against the Persians, who ruled parts of Egypt for about two years. The Second Persian Period ended with the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.

The last pharaoh of the Twenty-Sixth dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II of Persia in the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in 525 BC, Egypt was then joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia in the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire. Thus began the first period of Persian rule over Egypt (also known as the 27th Dynasty), which ended around 402 BC.

After an interval of independence, during which three indigenous dynasties reigned (the 28th, 29th, and 30th dynasty), Artaxerxes III (358–338 BC) reconquered the Nile valley for a brief period (343–332 BC), which is called the thirty-first dynasty of Egypt.

It is not known who served as satrap after Artaxerxes III, but under Darius III (336–330 BC) there was Sabaces, who fought and died at Issus and was succeeded by Mazaces. Egyptians also fought at Issus, for example, the nobleman Somtutefnekhet of Heracleopolis, who described on the "Naples stele" how he escaped during the battle against the Greeks and how Arsaphes, the god of his city, protected him and allowed him to return home.
In 332 BC Mazaces handed over the country to Alexander the Great without a fight. The Achaemenid empire had ended, and for a while Egypt was a satrapy in Alexander's empire. Later the Ptolemies and the Romans successively ruled the Nile valley.