Naqada III Period

In Upper Egypt cemeteries include extremely wealthy burials, revealing stark social differences. Cylinder jars are characteristic grave goods.

Naqada III is the last phase of the Naqadan period of ancient Egyptian history. It is the period during which the process of state formation, which had begun to take place in Naqada II, became highly visible, with named kings heading powerful polities. Naqada III is often referred to as Dynasty 0 to reflect the presence of kings at the head of influential states, although, in fact, the kings involved would not have been a part of a dynasty. They would more probably have been completely unrelated and very possibly in competition with each other. Kings names are inscribed in the form of serekhs on a variety of surfaces including pottery and tombs.

Wilkinson (1999) lists these early Kings as the un-named owner of Abydos tomb B1/2 whom some interpret as Iry-Hor, King A, King B, Scorpion and/or Crocodile, and Ka. Others favour a slightly different listing.

Naqada III extends all over Egypt and is characterized by some sensational firsts:

* The first hieroglyphs
* The first graphical narratives on palettes
* The first regular use of serekhs
* The first truly royal cemeteries
* Possibly, the first irrigation