Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed
The Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) is a peace treaty signed in 1994.
The treaty normalized relations between the two countries and resolved territorial disputes between them. The conflict between them had cost roughly 18.3 billion dollars. Its signing is also closely linked with the efforts to create peace between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization representing the Palestinian Authority. It was signed at the southern border crossing of Arabah on October 26, 1994, and made Jordan only the second Arab country (after Egypt) to normalize relations with Israel.
The relationship between Jewish leaders in Palestine and the Hashemite dynasty in the area was characterized by ambivalence as both parties' prominence grew in the area. Jordan consistently subscribed to the anti-Zionist policy of the Arab world, but made specific decisions in keeping with a pragmatic point of view.
Several factors are cited for their relative pragmatism towards Israel: Their close geographic proximity, King Hussein's pro-Western orientation and modest territorial aspirations.
Nevertheless, a state of war existed between the two countries from 1948 until the treaty was signed. The writers then had another meeting.
Memoir writers and political analysts have identified a number of "back-channel" and at times clandestine communications between the two countries, often resulting in limited accommodations even during times of war.
After the Fedayeen attacks from Jordan decreased as a result of the victory of Israel in the Suez War of 1956, the tense relations between Israel and Jordan following the 1948 Arab-Israeli war started to ease off. In the 1967 Six Day War, Jordan aligned itself with Nasser's Egypt despite an Israeli warning not to get involved in the war. This resulted in the fall of East Jerusalem and the West Bank to Israel. Besides the loss of territory, this was also an economic loss to the kingdom since much of the kingdom's economy was based in the West Bank.
In 1970 King Hussein waged the war of Black September against the PLO, ejecting the organization which was in real danger of usurping Hussein's rule over his country. During the events of Black September, Syrian troops invaded the kingdom, threatening to further destabilize the King's situation. In response, the Israeli Air Force made a series of overflights over the Syrian forces, prompting them to return to Syria.
The war against the PLO terrorist factions may have strengthened the connections between Israel and Jordan. Some claim that the Mossad gave warning to Hussein about a Palestinian assassination attempt and that Hussein warned Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir in a clandestine face-to-face meeting about Egyptian and Syrian threats prior to the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Hussein's intention was to stay out of the war.
In 1987 Israeli Foreign Affairs Minister Shimon Peres and King Hussein tried to secretly promote a peace agreement in which Israel would concede control over the West Bank to Jordan. The two signed an agreement defining a framework for a Middle Eastern peace conference, however the proposal was not consummated due to Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir’s objection. The following year Jordan abandoned its claim for the West Bank in favor of a peaceful resolution between Israel and the PLO.