As the raiders landed in China, most were aided by local Chinese forces or civilians.
One raider, Corporal Leland D. Faktor, died while bailing out. For aiding the American airmen, the Japanese unleashed the Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign which ultimately killed around 250,000 Chinese civilians. The survivors of two crews (8 men) were captured by the Japanese and three were executed after a show trial. A fourth died while a prisoner. The crew that landed in the Soviet Union escaped internment in 1943, when they were able to cross into Iran.
The Zhejiang-Jiangxi Campaign (Japanese: 浙贛作戦, simplified Chinese: 浙赣战役; traditional Chinese: 浙赣戰役; pinyin: zheganzhanyi), refers to a campaign by the China Expeditionary Army of the Japanese Imperial Army under Shunroku Hata and Chinese 3rd War Area forces under Gu Zhutong in the Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi from mid May to early September, 1942.
On April 18, 1942, the United States launched the Doolittle Raid, an attack by B-25 Mitchell bombers from the USS Hornet on Tokyo, Nagoya, and Yokohama. The original plan was for the aircraft to bomb Japan and land at airfields in the unoccupied portion of China. Because the raid had to be launched earlier than planned, most of the aircraft ran out of fuel and crash-landed in the Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi.
Sixty four airmen parachuted into the area around Zhejiang. Most were given shelter by the Chinese civilians but eight of the Americans were picked up by Japanese patrols; three were shot after a show trial for 'crimes against humanity'. The Japanese army then conducted a massive search for the other airmen and in the process whole towns and villages that were suspected of harboring the Americans were burned to the ground and many civilians executed. The Japanese also wanted to occupy the area to prevent American air forces from establishing bases in China from which they could reach the Japanese mainland.
When Japanese troops moved out of the Zhejiang and Jiangxi areas in mid-August, they left behind a trail of devastation. Chinese estimates put the death toll at 250,000 civilians. In retaliation, the Imperial Japanese Army had also spread cholera, typhoid, plague and dysentery pathogens.