Proclamation of the Manchu State

On 18 February 1932 the Manchu State (Manchukuo, Pinyin: Mǎnzhōuguó)[3] was proclaimed and recognized by Japan on 16 September 1932.

The city of Changchun, renamed Xinjing (新京, literally "New Capital"), became the capital of the new entity. Chinese in Manchuria organized volunteer armies to oppose the Japanese and the new state required a war lasting several years to pacify the country.

The Japanese initially installed Puyi as Head of State in 1932, and two years later he was declared Emperor of Manchukuo with the era name of Kangde ("Tranquility and Virtue"). Manchukuo thus became the Great Manchurian Empire, sometimes termed Manchutikuo (Pinyin: Mǎnzhōu Dìguó). Zheng Xiaoxu served as Manchukuo's first prime minister until 1935, when Zhang Jinghui succeeded him. Puyi was nothing more than a figurehead and real authority rested in the hands of the Japanese military officials. An imperial palace was specially built for the emperor. All of the Manchu ministers served as front-men for their Japanese vice-ministers, who made all decisions.

After General Ting Chao's defeat, General Ma resumed negotiations with Colonel DOHIHARA, while his army escaped through Russian territory into China. With his army safe in China proper,k General Ma, it is said, accepted the one million dollars in gold offered by DOHIHARA. In any event, he now agreed on 14 February 1932 to become Governor of Heilungkiang Province and cooperate with the Japanese.