Great, Britain, France and Russia Declare War on Germany, and Germany Declares War on Belgium
Germany, on August 3, while refusing to promise not to trample down Belgium, would agree not to attack France by sea if Britain should remain neutral.
Belgium, on the same day, heroically warned Germany that she was prepared to defend her borders against invasion by any nation, and asked the aid of England, France, and Russia in the event that an invasion took place.
The English government, on August 4, demanded an immediate answer from Germany respecting Belgian neutrality, and was startled to receive a reply from Foreign Secretary von Jagow saying that the German troops had actually crossed the border and it was now too late to reconsider.
Sir Edward Goschen, English Ambassador to Germany, was instructed to serve notice in person on the German Emperor that war would be declared at midnight unless a more satisfactory answer could be given.
The Chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg, protested against making such an ado over a "scrap of paper." Sir Edward Goschen prepared for transmission to England a telegraphic summary of his interview, but this was never forwarded by the German government. A typical example, truly, of German Kultur!
At midnight, on August 4, Great Britain declared war on Germany in defence of Belgium's integrity, which she, as well as Germany, had solemnly pledged herself in 1870 to respect. France and Russia also declared war on Germany, and Italy declared her neutrality.
Great Britain Declares War on Germany
Declaration last night after 'unsatisfactory reply' to British ultimatum that Belgium must be kept neutral
The King's Message to his Navy
Government to take control of all railways Admiral Jellicoe to be in supreme command of the Home Fleets
Huge Crowds Cheer Their Majesties at Palace
£100,000,000 voted in Commons in five minutes German invasion of Belgium with airships
Great Britain Declares War on Germany
Great Britain is in a state of war with Germany. It was officially stated at the Foreign Office last night that Great Britain declared war against Germany at 7.00pm. The British Ambassador in Berlin has been handed his passport.
War was Germany's reply to our request that she should respect the neutrality of Belgium, whose territories we were bound in honour and by treaty obligations to maintain inviolate.
Speaking in a crowded and hushed House the Premier yesterday afternoon made the following statement: "We have made a request to the German Government that we shall have a satisfactory assurance as to the Belgian neutrality before midnight tonight."
The German reply to our request, officially stated last night, was unsatisfactory.
The King and His Navy
The King has addressed the following message to Admiral Sir John Jellicoe: "At this grave moment in our national history I send to you and, through you, to the officers and men of the fleets, of which you have assumed command, the assurance of my confidence that under your direction they will revive and renew the old glories of the Royal Navy, and prove once again the sure shield of Britain and of her Empire in the hour of trial."
The above message has been communicated to the senior naval officers on all stations outside of home waters.
It was reported yesterday evening that Germany had taken the first hostile step by destroying a British mine-layer.
At the present time Germany is in a state of war with: Great Britain, Russia, France and Belgium.
It would seem as if Germany, in her ambition to control the destiny of the whole of Europe, were ready to embark on any grandiose scheme of adventure, however precarious her chances.
So far as Great Britain is concerned, her attitude has always been plain, straightforward and perfectly intelligible. She was prepared to stand aside from the conflict that has now involved practically the whole of Europe.
But she insisted and had to insist on two things: these were that Belgium's neutrality should be respected; and that the German fleet should not bombard defenceless French towns.
Germany tried to bribe us with peace to desert our friends and duty. But Great Britain has preferred the path of honour.
Chief of the Fleets
Sir John R Jellicoe has assumed the supreme command of the Home Fleets, with the acting rank of Admiral. Rear Admiral Charles E Madden has been appointed to be his chief of staff. Field Marshal Sir John French, the famous cavalry leader, has been appointed Inspector General to the Forces.
Mr Lloyd George subsequently announced in the House that the Government was engaged in preparing a scheme for the distribution of food, and hoped that it would be completed in the course of one or two days. The House unanimously passed in five minutes all outstanding votes, amounting to over £100,000,000.
An Order in Council has been issued declaring it expedient that Government should have control over the railroads of Great Britain.
Mr Asquith's Statement
In a strained silence in every part of the House of Commons yesterday, the Prime Minister made his momentous statement.
He explained how the King of the Belgians had appealed to England for diplomatic intervention on behalf of his country - Germany having demanded free passage for her troops through Belgium, promising to maintain the integrity and independence of the kingdom.
"Simultaneously," continued Mr Asquith, "we received from the Belgian Legation in London the following telegram from the Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs: 'The General Staff announce that territory has been violated at Verviers, near Aix-la-Chapelle. Subsequent information tends to show that a German force has penetrated still further into Belgian territory.'"
"We also received this morning from the German Ambassador here a telegram sent to him from the German Foreign Secretary: 'Please dispel any distrust that must exist on the part of the British Government with regard to our intentions by repeating, most positively, the formal assurance that, even in case of armed conflict with Belgium, Germany will not, under any pretence whatever, annex Belgian territory. Please impress upon Sir Edward Grey that the German Army could not be exposed to a French attack across Belgium, which was planned according to absolutely unimpeachable information.'"
"I have," continued Mr Asquith, "to add this on behalf of the Government: we cannot regard this as in any sense a satisfactory communication."
"We have, in reply to it, repeated the request we made last week to the German Government that they should give us the same assurance with regard to Belgian neutrality as was given to us and to Belgium by France last week."
"We have asked that a reply to that request and a satisfactory answer to the telegram of this morning, which I have read to the House should be given before midnight."
Roars of Cheers for the King
The King and Queen, accompanied by the Prince of Wales and Princess Mary, were hailed with wild, enthusiastic cheers when they appeared at about eight o'clock last night on the balcony of Buckingham Palace, before which a record crowd had assembled.
Seeing the orderliness of the crowd, the police did not attempt to force the people back and went away.
A little later the police passed the word around that silence was necessary as the King was holding a meeting in the Palace, and except for a few spasmodic outbursts there was silence for a time.
Afterwards the cheering was renewed with increased vigour and soon after 11.00pm the King and Queen and Prince of Wales made a further appearance on the balcony and the crown once more sang the National Anthem, following this with hearty clapping and cheering.
After the departure of the royal party some minutes later many of the crowd dispersed. Several enthusiasts, however, stayed outside keeping up the demonstration by shouting and waving flags.
Why There is War
The following statement was issued from the Foreign Office last night: Owing to the summary rejection by the German Government of the request made by his Majesty's Government for assurances that the neutrality of Belgium would be respected, his Majesty's Ambassador in Berlin has received his passport, and his Majesty's Government has declared to the German Government that a state of war exists between Great Britain and Germany as from 11.00pm on August 4.