Tobias Michael Carel Asser and Alfred Hermann Fried Win Nobel Peace Prize
Tobias Michael Carel Asser (April 28, 1838, Amsterdam – July 29, 1913, The Hague) was a Dutch jurist, cowinner (with Alfred Fried) of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1911 for his role in the formation of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at the first Hague peace conference (1899). He also advocated for the creation of an international academy of law, which led to founding of the Revue de Droit International et de Législation Comparée with John Westlake and Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns, the Institut de Droit International and the creation of the Hague Academy of International Law.
He was son of Carel Daniel Asser (1813-85), and grandson of Carel Asser (1780-1836).
A research institute in the fields of Private and Public International Law, European Law and International Commercial Arbitration is named after Tobias Michael Carel Asser. This is the T.M.C. Asser Instituut, based in The Hague, The Netherlands.
Alfred Hermann Fried (* November 11, 1864 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, † May 5, 1921 in Vienna), was an Austrian Jewish pacifist, publicist, journalist, co-founder of the German peace movement, and winner (with Tobias Asser) of the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1911.
Fried left school at the age of 15 and started to work in a book store in Vienna. In 1883 he moved to Berlin, where he opened a book shop of his own in 1887. He created and wrote Die Waffen nieder! (Lay Down Your Arms), and in 1892 he and Bertha von Suttner began to print it in magazine format. In articles published within Die Waffen nieder! and its successor, Die Friedenswarte (The Peace Watch), he articulated his pacifist philosophy.
In 1892 he was a co-founder of the German peace movement. He was one of the fathers of the idea of a modern organization to assure worldwide peace (the principal idea was fulfilled in the League of Nations and after the Second World War in the UN).
Fried was a prominent member of the Esperanto-movement. In 1903 he published the book Lehrbuch der internationalen Hilfssprache Esperanto (Textbook of the International Language of Esperanto). In 1911 he received the Nobel Peace Prize together with Tobias Asser. During the First World War he lived in Switzerland and died in Vienna in 1921.