Étienne Lenoir dies

Self-taught chemist and inventor Étienne Lenoir built the first practical internal-combustion engine, with valves allowing both the intake of an air-fuel mixture and the outflow of exhaust.

Powered by a mixture of ethylene, hydrogen, and methane, about 500 of Lenoir's engines were built and used in fixed-location industrial applications (lathes, pumps, and printing, etc.) across England and France. In 1862 Lenoir installed an internal combustion engine on a carriage and made a short test trip at about half of normal walking speed, which inspired Nikolaus Otto and others, leading to development of the automobile.