Third Battle Of Chattanooga
On November 23, 1863, the Battle of Chattanooga began.
Over the next three days, Union forces drove Confederate troops away from Chattanooga, Tennessee, into Georgia, setting the stage for Union General William T. Sherman's triumphant march to the sea.
The Battle of Chattanooga was one of the most dramatic turnabouts in American military history. Northern forces captured the steamboat and railhead center shortly after their September defeat at Chickamauga. In the early fall of 1863, Rebel forces moved into the mountains and bluffs overlooking Chattanooga, preventing the Union Army's escape.
The First Battle of Chattanooga was a minor battle in the American Civil War, fought on June 7 and June 8, 1862. The larger and more famous battle was the Third Battle of Chattanooga (generally referred to as the Battle of Chattanooga) in November 1863.
In late spring 1862, the Confederacy split its forces in Tennessee into several small commands in an attempt to complicate Federal operations. Maj. Gen. Ormsby M. Mitchel received orders to take his division to Huntsville, Alabama, to repair railroads in the area. Soon, he occupied more than 100 miles along the Nashville & Chattanooga and Memphis & Charleston railroads. In May, Mitchel and his men sparred with Maj. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith' men.
After Mitchel received command of all Federal troops between Nashville and Huntsville, on May 29, he ordered Brig. Gen. James Negley with a small division to lead an expedition to capture Chattanooga. This force arrived before Chattanooga on June 7. Negley ordered the 79th Pennsylvania Infantry out to reconnoiter. It found the Confederates entrenched on the opposite side of the river along the banks and atop Cameron Hill. Negley brought up two artillery batteries to open fire on the Rebel troops and the town and sent infantry to the river bank to act as sharpshooters. The Union bombardment of Chattanooga continued throughout June 7 and until noon on June 8. The Confederates replied, but it was uncoordinated since the undisciplined gunners were allowed to do as they wished. On June 10, Smith, who had arrived on June 8, reported that Negley had withdrawn and the Confederate loss was minor. This attack on Chattanooga was a warning that Union troops could mount assaults when they wanted.