Kansas is the 34th State Admitted to the Union

Kansas entered the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861.

About two hundred years earlier the French Jesuit priests, Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet, were among the region's earliest European explorers. A map drawn by Marquette in 1673 indicated that the Kanza, Ouchage (Osage), and Paneassa (Pawnee) tribes dominated the area that would become Kansas.

The United States acquired Kansas in 1803 from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase. During its early years as a U.S. possession, the area was part of Indian Territory and was used by the federal government to relocate tribal peoples. In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed the residents to decide if theirs would be a free or slave state.

Missouri and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border. These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery. The secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas. Kansas was admitted to the United States as a free state on January 29, 1861, making it the 34th state to enter the Union. By that time the violence in Kansas had largely subsided. However, during the Civil War, on August 21, 1863, William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly two hundred people. Until the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Quantrill's raid was the single bloodiest act of domestic terrorism in America.[citation needed] He was roundly condemned by both the conventional confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre war criminal record (see Jones, Gray Ghosts and Rebel Riders Holt & Co. 1956, p.76).

I wasn't there but a little while when I went to help a feller shingle a roof. It was about eight o'clock in the mornin', and I was sittin' there on the roof just lookin' out at those miles and miles of prairies, and way off in the distance I see somethin' about the size of a cigar standin' up on the horizon. It didn't seem to get no bigger and after I watched it a while I says to the feller, 'Look at that thing out there, don't it look funny.' He looked where I was pointin' and he says 'Know what that is? That's the freight train comin' in.' Well, we worked all mornin' and we went in and was eatin' dinner when we heard that train pull into the depot.”

— Mr. Botsford