Mongol Conquest of Siberia

The Mongols had long maintained intimate relations with the peoples of Siberian forest (taiga). They called those in the forest "People of the forest" (Ойн иргэд). Many of them, such as the Barga and Uriankhai, were little different from the Mongols. While the tribes around Lake Baikal were Mongol speaking, those to the west spoke Turkic, Samoyedic, or Yeniseian languages. By 1206, Chingis had conquered all Mongol-Turkic tribes in Mongolia and southern Siberia. And his eldest son Jochi subjugated the Siberian forest people: the Oirats, Barga, Khakas, Buriats, Tuvans, Khori-Tumed, Uriankhais and Kyrgyzs in 1207. He then organized the Siberians into 3 tumens. Chingis Khan gave the Telengit and Tolos along the Irtysh River to an old companion, Qorchi. While the Barga, Tumed, Buriats, Khori, Keshmiti, Bashkirs were organized in separate 1,000's, the Telengit, Tolos, Oirats and Yenisei Kirghizs were numbered as tumens. Genghis settled a colony of Chinese craftsmen and farmers at Kem-kemchik after the first phase of the Mongol-Jin War. The Great Khans favored gerfalcons, furs, harems and Kyrgyz horses for tribute.

Western Siberia came under the Ulus of Jochi (Golden Horde). The descendants of Orda Khan, the eldest son of Jochi, directly ruled the area. In the swamps of western Siberia, dogsled yam (route) stations were set up to facilitate collection of tribute.

In 1270, the Great Khan Kublai sent a Chinese official, with a new batch of colonists, to serve as judge of the Kyrgyz and Tuvan basin areas. Ogedei's grandson Kaidu occupied Central Siberia from 1275 on. The Yuan army under Kublai's Kipchak general Tutugh reoccupied the Kyrgyz lands in 1293 and, from then on the Empire of the Great Khan controlled Central and Eastern Siberia.