The Caliphate of Cordoba ends
The death of al-Hakam II in 976 marked the beginning of the end of the Caliphate of Córdoba.
Before his death, al-Hakam named his 14 year old son Hisham II (976–1008) as successor. Seeing that the child was in no way competent to be Caliph, yet having sworn an oath of obedience to him, Ibn Abi 'Amir (the top adviser to Hisham's father) pronounced him Caliph. Ibn Abi 'Amir played guardian for the young Hisham, taking the Caliph's powers until he was of age. Instead, he isolated Hisham in Córdoba while systematically eradicating his opposition. He steadily allowed Berbers from Africa to immigrate to al-Andalus in order to build up his base of support. Ibn Abi 'Amir led a cruel regime compared to Abd-ar-Rahman III. He did not shy away from using force to keep the Christians in check. He, and eventually his son 'Abd al-Malik (al-Muzaffar), would continue to keep power from Hisham until 1008 when al-Muzaffar died and his brother (Abd al-Rahman) pushed to become the successor of Caliph Hisham; Hisham complied. On a raid in the Christian north, a revolt tore through Córdoba. Abd al-Rahman never made it back.
The decision to name Hisham II Caliph shifted power from the individual to the advisers. The title Caliph became only a symbol; it no longer held power and influence. The Caliphate would be rocked with violence, with different revolutionaries claiming to be the new Caliph. The last Córdoban Caliph was Hisham III (1027–1031). With different factions competing, the Caliphate finally crumbled in 1031 into independent taifa kingdoms.