Bin Laden was living in Afghanistan in 1996 after being forced out of Sudan. He had lost most of his wealth and had become somewhat irrelevant on the world stage. He likened his “banishment” to Afghanistan to Mohammed’s time in Mecca. Bin Laden’s hijira included the use of the cave as a symbol, just like Mohammed. Although he was weakened and living in poverty, bin Laden declared war on America in a treatise to all Muslims.