Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, renamed in 2002 the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act in honor of its principal author, but more commonly known simply as Title IX, is a United States law enacted on June 23, 1972. The law states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance..."
Although the most prominent aspect of Title IX is its impact on high school and collegiate athletics, the original statute made no explicit mention of athletics.
Although the Civil Rights Act was originally written in order to end discrimination based on color, the act tremendously helped to energize the Women’s Rights movement which had somewhat slowed after women’s suffrage in 1920.
Title IX of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 says that any institution receiving federal or state funding may not discriminate against anyone based on sex. The act was passed in 1972 as a result of combining acts VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act. Title VI states that, “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color or national origin, be excluded from, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. Title VII forbids discrimination in hiring and employment based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin. In the context of Title IX and women’s rights it is important to note that Title VI includes no mention of gender bias whereas Title VII does.
After signing the Civil Rights act a few years earlier, in 1967, President Johnson issued a series of executive orders in order to make some clarifications. Before these clarifications were made, the National Organization for Women (NOW) persuaded President Johnson to include women in his executive orders. The most notable order was O...