Chiang moved the government to Taipei, Taiwan, where he formally resumed his duties as president on 1 March 1950.Chiang was reelected by the National Assembly to be the President of the ROC on 20 May 1954 and again in 1960, 1966, and 1972. He continued, as the President of the Republic of China, to claim sovereignty over all of China, which he defined as including China proper as well as Taiwan, Mongolia, and Tibet. In the context of the Cold War, most of the Western world recognized this position and the ROC represented China as a whole in the United Nations and other international organizations until the 1970s.
Despite the democratic constitution, the government under Chiang was a single-party state, consisting almost completely of mainlanders; the "Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion" greatly enhanced executive powers and the goal of "retaking the mainland" allowed the KMT to maintain its monopoly on power and to outlaw opposition parties. The government's official line for these martial law provisions stemmed from the claim that emergency provisions were necessary, since the Communists and KMT were still technically under a state of war, without any cease-fire signed, after Chiang retreated to Taiwan. His government sought to promote Chinese nationalism and ignored local cultural expression, such as forbidding the use of local languages in mass media broadcasts or in schools.