Montenegrin Army, 40,000
Austrian Army, 60,000
Montenegro, the poorest kingdom in the Balkans, had declared war against Austria on August 7, 1914, and her little Army of 40,000 men had rendered effective aid to their kinsmen in Serbia from the beginning of hostilities. Montenegrin artillery on Mt. Lovcen, had shelled the port of Cattaro and other Austrian towns along the Adriatic Sea in August, 1914, and the infantry occupied Scutari.
When the Serbians were making their victorious assault on Shabatz, and the Austrians were stampeding across the Drina, the Montenegrins attacked the Austrian Army on the frontier, compelling their retirement. The Montenegrin Army, commanded by General Yukovitch, then advanced into Bosnia and at Bilek, on September 2, 1914, won a signal victory over the Austrians, taking many prisoners. A week later the Austrians met defeat at Foca.
The Serbians then sent an army into Bosnia to unite with the Montenegrins in an advance on Sarajevo, but the Austrians were now in such strong force that both the Montenegrins and Serbians withdrew from Bosnia. The Montenegrins continued to assist the Serbians through the campaigns of 1915, supporting the left flank of the Serbians' position, and holding the lines around Fotcha and on the Lim River.
After Serbia had been crushed, in the fall of 1915, Austria began to lay her plans to eliminate Montenegro. At this time a huge Austrian Army guarded the frontier, while King Nicholas's forces had dwindled to 40,000 effective men. Despite these inequalities, the Montenegrins were able to smash an Austrian Army at Bielo, in the closing days of 1915, driving the enemy back as far as Ivania.
Montenegrins Surrender to Austrians
The main Austro-Hungarian Armies were assembled on January 6, 1916 for a general offensive against Montenegro on two fronts, General Koevess directing the movements. While the Eastern frontier of Mont...