The Battle of the Sacramento took place on February 28, 1847 during the Mexican-American War. About 25 miles north of Chihuahua at the river Sacramento.
In early 1847, Colonel Alexander Doniphan was heading south with his small army of about 1,000 men (including officers), which included primarily infantry, cavalry and artillery. on February 8, Doniphan left the town of El Paso del Norte to escort a merchant caravan and about 315 wagons to Chihuahua. On the 25 of February, the U.S. Army reached the Inseneas region when informed by spies that a force of 1,500 Mexican soldiers held the town. The American army continued and the Mexican garrison retreated without fighting. Continuing some more, the U.S. army reached the Sacramento River. on the 27, the Americans learned that the Sacramento River pass had been fortified and defended by a larger Mexican force. At sunrise on the 28, the last day of February, the U.S. army took up the line of march and formed the whole train, consisting of 315 heavy traders, wagons, a commissary and company of wagons, into four columns. Colonel Doniphan placed the artillery and all the operators in intervals between the columns of wagons. The cavalry was used as a shield to protect the artillery. When the Americans arrived within three miles of the Mexican defenses, they made a reconnoissance of the enemy positions and the arrangement of their cannons. Several redoubts had been dug by the Mexicans. Protecting the 1,200 Mexican infantry and 1,420 militia, 1,200 Mexican cavalry men waited outside the fortified pass for orders to engage, 16 cannons and culverin pieces were among the defenses.